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Finnish Work and Residence Permits

IMPORTANT:
Expat Finland is not a government authority and cannot arrange your residence in Finland.
You must apply for a first residence permit if you plan to stay in Finland for longer than 90 days. If you are not an EU citizen or equivalent person, an application for the first residence permit must be submitted abroad, before entry into Finland. Applications can be submitted to the Finnish Embassy or Consulate in the country of origin, or online via the enterfinland.fi e-service of the Finnish Immigration Service.
For complete up-to-date information visit the Finnish Immigration Service www.migri.fi, available in 10 languages
See also

Top tip: A personal identity number (henkilötunnus) can be requested at the same time as applying for a residence permit.

Working In Finland: Introduction

If you are a citizen of the EU, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway or Switzerland you do not require a residence permit for Finland.
Otherwise, an alien intending to engage in remunerated employment in Finland must usually have a residence permit for an employed person. A person intending to engage in an independent business or profession in Finland must have a residence permit for a self-employed person.

There are exceptions to this rule, and in certain circumstances or professional capacities you may work in Finland without a residence permit. For more information please visit:
Finnish Immigration Service: www.migri.fi > In English > Working in Finland > Right to Work without a Residence Permit

Consequences of 'Brexit'
On 23 June 2016 the UK voted by referendum to leave the European Union. The Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland has advised UK citizens resident in Finland of the consequences. In summary:

  • At this time the UK is still a full member of the EU, and there are no immediate changes to the movement, rights, or obligations of EU citizens.
  • You don’t need to take any action now. Changes to laws will be announced before they happen, so you'll have time to prepare if you’re affected.
  • The withdrawal process can take up to 2 years, during which time there will be lengthy negotiations. The Ministry cannot predict the outcome of those negotiations.

EU Citizens & Equivalent Persons: Right to Work in Finland

EU Citizens
Since July 1, 2013, there are 28 EU member states: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

Equivalent Persons
Equivalent Persons" include citizens of Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland.

If you are a citizen of the EU or an equivalent person, you will not require a residence permit for Finland.
You will be free to reside and work in Finland for up to ninety days. If you are staying longer you must register your right of residence before the end of the ninety day period. Your right of residence can be registered at enterfinland.fi.
Information on permit matters is available from the Police:
poliisi.fi/licences_and_permits_for_foreigners/eu_the_european_union

EU Citizens & Equivalent Persons: Right to Self-Employment in Finland

EU citizens and equivalent persons can freely engage in business in Finland after they have registered their right to reside in Finland. The right applies to those who are either private entrepreneurs or self-employed persons (those with a right of establishment). Also, service providers and receivers, such as doctors, hairdressers, and those seeking medical care at their own expense, may belong to this group. They do not need a separate residence permit.

How to register the right to reside in Finland
Your right of residence can be registered at enterfinland.fi. A self-employed person must attach support documentation such as a certificate of the registration of a trade, or other reliable account of self-employment.

Non-EU Citizens: Residence Permits - General Information

A person moving to Finland should first apply for a residence permit from the Finnish diplomatic mission in his or her own country, or from the diplomatic mission of a Schengen country representing Finland. Applications with supporting attachments can also be submitted online at enterfinland.fi. In exceptional cases, the application for a residence permit can be submitted in Finland.

A residence permit is either temporary or permanent (P). Depending on the nature of the stay, a temporary residence permit is granted as a fixed-term (B) or continuous residence permit.

The first permit is usually granted for one year, unless you specifically apply for a shorter period of validity. Continuous residence permits can be extended for a maximum of three years at a time.

If you have a fixed-term residence permit for an employed person or self-employed person, your permit can be extended on a fixed-term basis for a maximum of one year at a time. You can be granted a continuous residence permit after a two-year temporary stay if the preconditions for granting the permit are still valid.

You can be granted a permanent residence permit when you have resided in Finland without interruption for four years on the basis of a continuous residence permit.

For details visit:
Finnish Immigration Service: www.migri.fi

Non-EU Citizens: Residence Permit for a Person Engaging in Employment

Foreign employees who are non-EU citizens and equivalent persons generally need a residence permit for an employed person to work in Finland. An alien who has entered the country either with a visa or visa-free is not allowed to engage in remunerated employment in Finland but, rather, has to apply for a residence permit.  A residence permit can be granted on the basis of either temporary work or work of a continuous nature.

In granting the permit, the needs of the labour market are taken into consideration. The aim of the residence permit praxis is to support the possibility of those who are on the employment market to gain employment. Thus, the availability of work force is also supported.

Granting a residence permit for an employed person requires that the alien's means of support be guaranteed. The employment office will estimate both the labour political requirements and the sufficiency of the means of support.

Priority is given to EU citizens and equivalent persons for job openings
When making its deliberations, the employment office takes into account that EU citizens and equivalent persons, as well as other people who already legitimately reside in Finland and who in fact may be available to perform the work, have a priority in attaining job openings in the EU area.

There are exceptions to these rules, and in certain circumstances or professional capacities you may work in Finland without a residence permit for an employed person.

For details please visit the
Finnish Immigration Service: www.migri.fi > In English > Working in Finland > An employee and work

Non-EU Citizens: Residence Permit for a Self-Employed Person

Non-EU citizens need a residence permit for a self-employed person in order to engage in business activities in Finland. It is most common for self-employed people to have an individually-owned business (toiminimi), to be a partner in an unlimited partnership company (avoin yhtiö), or to be a general partner in a limited partnership company (kommandiittiyhtiö).

Application Processing & Decision
The Finnish Immigration Service will make a decision on your residence permit application.

  1. The Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment makes a partial decision on the application. It evaluates the profitability of the business and the sufficiency of income to cover living expenses. The profitability of the business is evaluated on the basis of documents such as the company's business plan, binding preliminary agreements, and financing. The Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment may ask further clarification from you if the documents accompanying your application are not sufficient.
  2. When the partial decision has been made, the Finnish Immigration Service will process the application and make a final decision. In some cases, you may be interviewed before the final decision, in writing or orally.

For details on how to apply for a residence permit for a self-employed person please visit the
Finnish Immigration Service: www.migri.fi > In English > Working in Finland > Self employed person

Family Member of a Finnish Resident

If you want to move to Finland to live with a member of your family who is already residing in this country, you will require a residence permit. The permit can be granted on the basis of family ties. The family member residing in Finland with whom you intend to lead a family life is referred to as the sponsor. The sphere of family members is laid down by law and does not necessarily correspond to general views on what constitutes a family member. The Finnish concept of family is narrower than that of many other countries.

If you are married or have a registered partnership with a Finnish citizen, or have what is referred to in some countries as a "common-law marriage" with a Finnish citizen, you may be able to apply for a residence permit on that basis. Residence permits may also be applied for on the basis of children, guardianship or other family relations.

Expat Finland receives many residence enquiries from people in relationships with Finnish citizens. Following is a brief summary only of two sections from the Finnish Immigration Service, January 2016:

Marriage / Registered Partnership with a Finnish Citizen
If your spouse is a Finnish citizen who resides in Finland or will move to Finland, you may apply for a residence permit for yourself on the basis of family ties. The same applies to persons of the same gender who have registered their partnership.

Cohabitation with a Finnish Citizen
If your cohabiting partner is a Finnish citizen who resides in Finland or will move to Finland, you may apply for a residence permit for yourself on the basis of family ties. A residence permit may be granted if:

For full, current information it is essential you consult
www.migri.fi > In English > Moving to Finland to be with a family member > Filling in the application > Family member of a Finnish citizen > Spouse

See also: Infopankki > Living in Finland > Family

Permits For Students

Foreign students are welcome to study at Finnish educational institutions. You must apply for a residence permit if you plan to study in Finland for longer than ninety days. If your studies will take less than ninety days, apply for a visa unless you are a citizen of a visa-free country, in which case you can study for ninety days without a visa or residence permit. For visa requirements see:
Ministry for Foreign Affairs: www.formin.finland.fi > In English > Services > Foreign nationals arriving in Finland > Visa requirement and travel documents accepted by Finland

If you are an EU citizen or equivalent person you will not require a residence permit for Finland.

Student permit matters are handled by the Finnish Police. Students may now apply for a residence permit online! Please visit
Finnish Police: www.poliisi.fi > In English > Licences > Licenses and permits for foreigners > Residence permits > Students

See also: Study In Finland

Administration Inside Finland:
Residence Permit extensions, Visa matters, Identity Cards +

From mid-2015 the Finnish Immigration Service's e-service includes online applications for

  • Extended residence permit
  • Registration of an EU citizen’s right of residence
  • Residence card of a family member of an EU citizen
  • enterfinland.fi

Inside Finland, the Police:

The Finnish Police website has detailed information on:

Related Links

For further information about permits and licences, as well as details of application procedures, forms and charges, please see: